NUPI er kommet med en rapport om Asias inntreden i Arktis. I rapporten konkluderer de med at havretten (UNCLOS) blir anerkjent av alle nye observatører i Arktisk Råd som det overordnete regelverket for Arktis. Men er havretten virkelig et godt styringsverktøy for shipping og gjennomfart i Arktis?
Jeg mener ja, selvom det er noen utfordringer knyttet til artikkel 234 i havretten og russernes tolkning av denne. Jeg redegjør for det i min artikkel om dette (les artikkelen i sin helhet her: THE UN LAW OF THE SEA: A TOOL FOR ARCTIC GOVERNANCE?):
The UNCLOS establishes the over-arching legal framework for Arctic governance of transit marine shipping. The Convention balances the power of states and gives the right to innocent passage and shipping in the Arctic. The extent of Arctic coastal states to control foreign shipping in the Arctic has been bolstered by Article 234 of UNCLOS that covers ice covered areas. However the jurisdictional status of some Arctic waters remains controversial. It can be claimed that the Russian interpretation of the article 234 of the UNCLOS is interpreted in accordance with the Soviet sector concept, which is not to the best of transit marine shipping in the NSR.
The Russian interpretation leads to higher cost and more uncertainty for the shipping companies and therefore to less trade and commerce along the NSR. In my opinion a thorough international dialogue and more specific regulations are hence needed.
With regards to the question whether The UNCLOS is a tool for increased cooperation on and governance of transit marine shipping along the NSR, the answer is yes when it comes to the overall Arctic governance. However the regulative measures taken by Russia on the basis of the UNCLOS is not always beneficial for international cooperation on transit maritime shipping along the NSR.
UNCLOS alone is therefore not sufficient for international cooperation for increased trade along the NSR. Further international dialogue on the basis of UNCLOS will be needed in the future.